'broom of Titoism'
March 11, 2007
The Washington Times Forum
Times (et cetera section of Feb. 26) featured excerpts from Steve H. Hanke's
article "The Broom of Titoism" regarding Marshall Josip Broz Tito's attempt at
resolving communist Yugoslavia's surplus labor problem. "Tito came up with a
simple, but ingenious, economic strategy; he ... exported surplus labor."
Communist Vietnam has taken a page out of Tito's playbook, and is now exporting
a great share of its labor force in an attempt to quell the unrest that
fermenting in that country. Seventy percent of the population is under 30
years of age. According to its labor department, Vietnam has a labor force of 43
million workers, and some 8 million Vietnamese of working age are jobless.
The government set a goal to send 500,000 Vietnamese workers overseas by 2005 to
countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and South Korea. The Labor
Ministry has identified the United States, Australia and Canada as new major
markets for Vietnamese guest workers this year (www.vietnam.gov.vn).
Exporting workers is not new for Vietnam, for after the communist takeover in
1975, hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese laborers were sent to the Soviet Union
and European East-Block countries as a form of war debt payments, and many ended
up jobless and stranded.
In 1999, the Vietnamese government also provided workers, mostly female --
albeit illegally-- to a Korean garment company making clothing for J.C. Penney
and Sears in American-Samoa. The so-called "guest workers" were paid a pittance,
exploited under deplorable sweatshop conditions, beaten, sexually abused and
The high court of American Samoa levied a fine of $3.5 million against the
Korean company that abused the 251 mainly women workers and the Vietnamese
government for exporting the workers. Vietnam has never paid the fine.
People in remote and mountainous areas in Vietnam remain unaware of these
opportunities and rely on middlemen when they want to apply for overseas jobs.
Swindlers flock to these rural areas, pretending to be representatives of
job-supply companies recruiting workers for overseas jobs and promising large
sums of money for their services. According to the Vietnamese government,
"Legitimate contractors" are supposed to charge a finders fee of only $2,000
(U.S.) each and another $150 for health certificate and visas.
recruits have to top off this amount with additional payments under the table.
More than 30,000 Vietnamese workers have been sent to Malaysia -- a number are
Montagnards from the impoverished Central Highlands. To pay the recruitment fee,
the workers' families have to raise the money either by borrowing at usury
rates, or selling their land, livestock or other assets. Those who aren't
swindled outright and actually get a job overseas, upon arrival, often find
their wages aren't what was promised. The Vietnamese contractors and/or the
host-country contractors siphon off a considerable amount as costs for housing,
food and work-related equipment.
In some cases, food and housing are not provided, or if so, it is substandard,
and workers have no health-care. Workers are "tied" to one company, and if they
quit their jobs, even because of abuse, they can be sent back to Vietnam without
receiving any wages or just abandoned in the host country with no money and no
Vietnamese "guest workers" are employed as farm workers, household servants, in
sweatshops, and in other jobs requiring heavy labor that the local labor force
no longer wants to do. Women who don't end up in sweatshops or as housemaids are
often employed in the sex trade or are sold off as wives to locals who can't
find wives in their own country.
Mr. Hanke says, "Rather than modernize the economy, Mexico's politicos have also
used Titoism's safety valve; when incapable of fostering productive jobs, export
the labor force. ... Last year, almost 30 percent of Mexico's labor force was
working in the United States." A great share of the U.S. agricultural labor
force comes from Mexico. While Congress heatedly debates immigration, communist
Vietnam has seized the opportunity and embarked upon a stealth strategy to
penetrate the U.S.
As if the U.S. didn't already have a critical immigration problem, communist
Vietnam wants to get in on the action and its Labor Ministry has negotiated with
the U.S. government to send "guest workers" here to work as welders, gardeners
and citrus-harvesters. However, the Vietnamese government is charging the
workers a king's ransom -- $20,000 each -- for the privilege of coming to the
U.S. to work -- far beyond the means of the average impoverished Vietnamese.
Thi Thanh Nhan, director general of Advanced International Joint Stock Co.
(AIC), a labor export company, says workers' contracts can be for as long as
three years, after which laborers can be granted permanent residency by the U.S.
government. This sounds like a high-priced Vietnamese government undercover
"coyote" operation for the more privileged.
There are still plenty of our former allies who are persecuted and have suffered
for years in Vietnamese communist concentration (termed re-education) camps, who
would just love to be able to come to the U.S. as "guest workers" and fill these
jobs. However, the State Department feels these allies should stay in Vietnam.
The Montagnards lost half their male population fighting for the United States.
Since the communist takeover, Montagnards have and continue to suffer from gross
human rights abuses, religious persecution and thinly disguised genocide.
Recently at a Hanoi press conference, Ellen Sauerbrey, assistant secretary of
state for population, refugees and migration, gave her answer to the debt the
U.S. owes these loyal allies by proclaiming that the Mountagnards must stay in
communist Vietnam (AFP, Feb. 5). Meanwhile, the U.S. imports Vietnamese "guest
workers," and after three years they "can be granted permanent residency." Go
* Mr. Benge spent 11 years in Vietnam as a Foreign Service officer, five as a
prisoner of war, 1968-1973. He is very active in advocating for human rights and
religious freedom for the peoples of this region.